Rabu, 06 Februari 2013

CONTOH PROPOSAL PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS TERLENGKAP


TEACHING VOCABULARY WITH THE THEME ”FRUITS” TROUGH WORD SEARCH PUZZLE TO THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF THE STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 16 OF PALEMBANG

A Research Proposal Design by:

Name              : ADE IRAWAN
SRN                : 2010.111.286
Class               : 5.G
Subject           : Research On Language Teaching
Lecturer         : Dr. Suhuri, M.Pd

Student Registration Number 2010 111 299
English Education Study Program
Language and Arts Education Department






FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF PGRI PALEMBANG
2012/2013

TEACHING VOCABULARY WITH THE THEME ”FRUITS” TROUGH WORD SEARCH PUZZLE TO THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF THE STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 16 OF PALEMBANG


1.     Background
            A language is considered to be a system of communicating with other people using sounds, symbols and words in expressing a meaning, idea or thought. This language can be used in many forms, primarily through oral and written communications as well as using expressions through body language.
            Language may refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, or to a specific instance of such a system of complex communication.
            According to Brown, H. Douglas (2007:384), language is a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meanings.
            Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently. (The language Instinct, 1994:6)
            On the other hand, according to Ron Scollon (2004, p.272), wish to emphasize that, first of all, language is not something that comes in “nicely packaged units” and that it certainly is “a multiple, complex, and kaleidoscopic phenomenon.”
            Teaching English to the students can said tricky. Many people argue that describe the subject matter is very difficult because English is a foreign language inevitably be carried out under the demands of the curriculum in force in our country.
            Many students feel confused when they want to speak English with smart fast way. But they were confused where to start. Does first have to master grammar, conversation, vocabulary, reading or writing?
            Vocabulary is one of the language aspects. The students cannot read, speak, listen, and write without understanding the meaning of words. But, by teaching vocabulary first, the students easily able to read, understand and memorize vocabulary more quickly because this is a very effective way.
            In addition, a better way and easier to teach English, especially vocabulary to students is by using games, such as word search puzzle game. Because this game could be an alternative or variation in the methods of English teaching for teachers. With this method, students will not feel bored in learning English. But they will become critical and active children in learning English.
            Word search puzzle can be designed for any educational levels, which make them an ideal learning activity for the students.
            Teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle is not only in written activities and fun so that it would make the students passive learners but also process of the teaching these vocabulary at to be applied in active activities in a for of communication the students will be taught how memorize for a spelling test to do a word search.
            Based on the above statements, the writer takes the title of this study as follow teaching vocabulary with the theme “fruits” through word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 16 of Palembang.

2.     Problem
            The problem of this study is to find out whether the word search puzzle is affective or not for teaching vocabulary to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 16 of Palembang.

2.1        Limitation of the Problem
            This study is limited towards teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 16 of Palembang. The vocabulary tough in the theme fruits is listed below:
  1. Banana                                    6. Guava                                  11. Pineapple
  2. Apple                          7. Kiwi                                    12. Jackfruit
  3. Orange                                    8. Melon                                  13. Mango
  4. Peach                           9. Date                                                14. Grape
  5. Cherry                         10. Olive                                 15. Pear

2.2        Formulation of the Problem
            The formulation of the problem in this study is started in the following question, “Is it effective teaching vocabulary with the theme “fruits” through word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 16 of Palembang?”

3.     Objective of the Research
            The objective of this study is to find out whether it is significantly effective teaching vocabulary with the theme “fruits” through word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 16 of Palembang.

4.     Significances of the Research
            By using this study, there are some significance to the students, teachers, other researchers, and writer herself.
- For students
            This study will be helpful for students in vocabulary and the students apply word search puzzle to increase their vocabulary skills.
- For teachers of English
            After knowing effectiveness in teaching vocabulary of the word search, the teacher can implement this method when they teaching vocabulary.
- For other researchers
            To be the source of information for other researchers who are also investigating word search puzzle.
- For the writer herself
            The result of this study can be useful to enlarge her knowledge about teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle.

5.     Hypotheses
            The hypothesis is a tentative answer to the problem of research, until proven by the data collected. (Arikunto, 2006:71)
            The hypothesis is a temporary answer to the problem of theoretical research that is considered most likely or highest level of truth. Technically, the hypothesis is a statement about the state of the population to be tested for truth through data obtained from the research sample. Statistically, the hypothesis is a declaration of state of the parameters that will be tested through a statistical sample. (Margono, S, 2009:67).
            The hypotheses of the study are proposed in terms of null hypotheses (Ho) and alternative hypotheses (Ha). They are follows:
1. (Ho)             : It is not effective in teaching vocabulary with the theme “fruits”
                          through word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of the State
                          Junior High School 16 of Palembang.
2. (Ha)             : It is effective in teaching vocabulary with the theme “fruits” through
                          word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of the State Junior
                          High School 16 of Palembang.

6.     The Criteria for Testing the Hypotheses
            In this research, the hypotheses will be tested by the critical value of t- distribution table for one tailed test. Since the degree of freedom (df) is 39 (40-1=39) with 95% or 0, 05 significance level for one-tailed test, the criteria value in the t-table is 1.684. If the result of the matched t-test is the same or less than 1.684, the null hypotheses (Ho) will be accepted. On the other hand, if the result of matched t-test is equal to or exceeds 1.684, the alternative hypotheses (Ha) will be accepted and consequently the null hypotheses (Ho) will be rejected (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:272).

7.     Literature Review
            In literature review, the writer discusses:
(1) Concept of teaching
(2) Concept of vocabulary
(3) Concept of word search puzzle
(4) Teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle
(5) Related previous study.

7.1        Concept of Teaching
            According to Newton (1992: ii), teaching is a profession conducted by using a combination of art, science, and skill. It is an art because it relies on the “teacher’s creative provision of the best possible learning environment and activities for his/her students. It is a science since it is a system and ordered set ideas and method used by the teacher in doing his/her job. Further more teaching is skill for it demands the ability-attained from relevant theories and that they are able to gain linguistic and communicative competence in the target language”.
According to Finocchiaro, 1982:5), teaching is trying to keep the students motivation high by using a variety of short activities-four to six different activities-within a 45-minute period cantering around the same teaching point, whether a grammatical feature, a notion, or a function of language, through the cognitive-code theory, that is, the inductive presentation of a linguistic item or category, with tasks and activities that will lead to habit formation of features of pronunciation, morphology, and syntax, which will in turn, lead to fluency and accuracy by focusing more specifically on social communication as the major of objective of language teaching.
Teaching is an interactive process between the teacher and students and among students themselves. The students need to comprehend the new language, but can best do this when allowed asking about what it is they do not understand rather than rely on their teacher or textbook to anticipate areas of comprehension difficulty and simplify a priority (Pica, 1992:4)
Teaching is accompanied by evaluation to know the results of teaching-learning activities because evaluation is a necessary component of all activities, especially in TEFL, whose main objective is to monitor, to help, and to grade the student’s use of the language. (Oller, Jr, 1987: 21)
   Teaching is showing or helping someone to learn, giving instructions; guiding; providing with knowledge; causing to know or understand. (Brown, H. Douglas, 2007:391)

7.2        Concept of Vocabulary
            Vocabulary is a set of LEXEMES, including single words, COMPOUND WORDS and IDIOMS (Richard, Jack: John Platt and Heidi Weber, 1985:307).
            According to Hornby (1974:959), vocabulary is a total number of words which (with rules for combining them) make up the language.
            According to lexical field theory, the vocabulary of a language is essentially a dynamic and well-integrated system of lexemes structured by relationships of meaning. (Howard Jackson, 2000: 14)
            Websters (1988:110 p.9) states that vocabulary is a list of words, usually arranges alphabetically and defined, explained, or translated.
            In learning vocabulary, the learners should emphasize on the aspect of words. The success in learning a foreign language is determined by the size of vocabulary one has learned.
           
7.2.1 The Important of Vocabulary
            Vocabulary is very important in language, a large number of vocabularies are so difficult to learn, and because of that, the teacher should use good method in teaching vocabulary. Since the teaching of English in Indonesia is aimed increasing that teaching vocabulary? The English teacher much takes deep concern of vocabulary lesson. However, vocabulary teaching has not always been very responsive to such problems, and the teachers have not fully recognised the tremendous communicative advantage in developing an extensive vocabulary.
            According to Websters (1988:9), in learning language, someone will learn the words of that language since we have learned that it is the essential area of language. From the statements above, we assumed that vocabulary is a very important element of a language.
            Although there are many techniques of teaching vocabulary. Nation (1974: 10, p.9) says, when we teach a word we must teach three things: (1) we must teach the shape or the form of the word, (2) we must teach the meaning of the word, (3) and we must teach that the form and the meaning of the word together.

7.3        Concept of Word Search Puzzle
            According to Hornby (1995: 947), puzzle is a thing that is difficult to understand or answer a mystery or a question or toy that is designed to test a person’s knowledge, skill, intelligence, etc.
            A word search puzzle is a word game that is letters of a word in a grid that usually has a rectangular or square shape. The objective of this puzzle is to find and mark all the words hidden inside the box. The words may be horizontally, vertically or diagonally. Often a list of the hidden words is provided, but more challenging puzzles may let the player figure them out. Many word search games have a theme to which all the hidden words are related. The puzzle it self kind to play that can be used to practice certain language features at certain phases in learning process in order to develop communication skill.
7.4.    Teaching Vocabulary through Word Search Games
            To success in teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle, the teacher should have different technique for different level.
            Teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle enables the students to find out to information or guests the meaning on unfamiliar words. So, the word search puzzle can help the students. The students may be happy and interesting in learning and they always try to know the new words from word search puzzle.
            Relating to the importance of teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle, as far as it is know some students are always confused with the problem of through puzzle. In this case, there are many ways to making the students interested in what they are learning the teacher can create a game, which the student can think about new words that related with the topic of word search puzzle. Teaching vocabulary by using word search puzzle make students more relax, enjoyable, happy and the students understanding the material. And also can improve their achievement.
            Children without an extensive vocabulary have a hard time understanding what they’re reading, especially as they get older and reading material becomes more difficult. To complicate matters, most young readers, including different learners, have a larger spoken vocabulary than a reading vocabulary. (Goodman, Lori. Wordplay, 2003:13)
7.5    Related Previous Study
     In this study there is one related studies, which is similar to this present study, she is written by Supriyani (2001). The title of her thesis is: TEACHING ENGLISH VOCABULARY USING PUZZLE TO THE SEVENTH YEAR STUDENTS’ OF THE STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL YAYASAN PEMBINA PALEMBANG. The purposes of her thesis are:
(1) To find out the whether or not there are differences in vocabulary using puzzle and the students who are not taught without puzzle.
(2) To know how the students’ ability in vocabulary mastery after they are taught using puzzle.
            From the study above, the writer compares her research with those of Supriyani. There are similarities and differences between her and the writer. The similarities between the previous study and this study: (1) the instrument used by the previous study was the puzzles, (2) the puzzle was used by the previous study for teaching vocabulary. This studies the experimental method for teaching vocabulary. And the differences are the location of the research and the samples of the research. The result of Supriyani’s thesis is teaching vocabulary through puzzle was effective to the seventh year students’ of SMP Yayasan Pembina Palembang.

8.    Research Procedure
            In method and procedure focuses on the discussion of (1) Research Variables, (2) Operational Definitions, (3) Method of Research, (4) Population and Sample, (5) Techniques for collecting the Data, (6) Techniques for Analyzing Data.
8.1    Research Variables
            There are two kinds of research variables. They are independent variable and dependent variable. Independent variable is presumed to have an effect on, to influence some how another variable, while dependent variable is a variable that the independent variable is presumed to affect (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990:39)
Variable is any trait that can change values from case to case. Examples of variables would be gender, age, income, or political party affiliation. In any specific theory, some variables will be identified as causes and others will be identified as effects or result. In the language of science, the causes are called independent variables and the “effects” or result variables are called dependent variables. (Healey, Joseph F. 1999:3)
            In my research variable, the independent variable on this investigation is the word search puzzle and dependent variable is teaching vocabulary.


8.2      Operational Definitions
            In this part, some important terms must be operationally defined to avoid misinterpretation and misunderstanding on what this thesis is discussing about. They are: (1) Teaching, (2) Vocabulary, (3) Word Search Puzzle.
(1) Teaching
            Teaching is activities guiding the students learning activities, arranging, and organizing environment around. The students can stimulate and develop the students to learn the turn of the teaching is a prove performed by the teacher to increase students learning activities.
            Teaching is an activity in which teachers convey knowledge and experience to their students. The goal is for the knowledge presented to students that can be understood by learners.
            Teaching is an organized activity or manage the environment as well - good and connects with the kids, and become involved in the learning process.

(2) Vocabulary
            Vocabulary is a total number of words that make up language and a list or collection of words arranged in alphabetical order and explained; a dictionary or lexicon, either of a whole language, a single work or author, a branch of science, or the like; a word-book.
            A vocabulary is defined as all the words known and used by a particular person. However, the words known and used by a particular person do not constitute all the words a person is exposed to.
(3) Word Search Puzzle
            Word search puzzles are a game in the search for the words, either vertically, horizontally, and diagonally. This game can help students increase their vocabulary and make them happy in doing search puzzle game of words.
8.3    Method of Research
   According to Hornby (1995:780), method is the way of doing something. In writing this study, the writer will use the experimental design. Richards, et.al (1985:100) states that an experimental method is an approach to educational research in which the idea of hypothesis is tested or verified by setting up situation in which relationship between different subjects or variables can be determined.
   The method used in conducting this research is experimental method. Dealing the experimental method, Isaac and Michael (1982:54) states that is it use to approximate the conditions of the true experiment in a setting, which does not allow the control and/ or manipulation of all relevant variables. The following are the step taken in doing this research.
1. Surveying the literature relating to problem
2. Determining the type of research to be conducted, and how it will be affect the design of the research investigation.
3. Establishing clearly the goals and objectives of the made, and the how these translate into testable research hypotheses.
4. Identifying the population from which inferences are made, and the limitations of the sample drawn, for purposes of the investigation.
8.4    Population and Sample
8.4.1.   Population
            Population is all data that concerns us in a scope and time that we specify. Thus, population-related data, not human. If every human being to provide a data, the number or size of the population will be equal to the number of humans. (Margono, S. 2009:118).

            Understanding others, mentions that the whole object of the study population was composed of humans, objects, animals, plants, symptoms, test scores, or events as a source of data that have certain characteristics in a study. (Hadari Nawawi, 1983:141)
            The population of this research in the seventh grade student of State Junior High School 16 of Palembang in the academy year at 2009/2010. There were five classes VII A until VII E consisted of 4 students, so the total of than was 200 students.
            Table seventh grade students at State Junior High School 16 of Palembang are 200 students as shown in table 1 below:
                                                            Table 1
The population of the study
No
Class
Students
1
VII A
40
2
VII B
40
3
VII C
40
4
VII D
40
5
VII E
40

Total
200
(Source: State Junior High School 16 of Palembang)
8.4.2.      Sample
            Sample is any group of individual, which selected to present a population. (Richards,et al,1992:321)
            Arikunto (1993:104) states that the sample is any number of things, people or events which are less than the total population. In this research, the sample of the study is dawn from the population by using cluster random and sampling.
            According to Fraenkel and Wallen (1990), sample is a group in a research study on which information is obtained. It is selected in such a way that it represents, the larger group (population) from which it is obtained. In choosing the sample for the study, the writer will use cluster random sampling method. Fraenkel and Wallen state that cluster random sampling is the selection of individuals rather that single individual. All individuals in a cluster are included in the sample.
8.5      Techniques for Collecting the Data
            In collecting the data for this study, the written test will be used. A test is any procedure for measuring ability, knowledge, or performance (Richards, et,al 1985:291). Test is given to help the students assess the effect of experimentation and to know so far the students can understand what they have learned. They will be to kinds of the best that will use by the writer. The first will be pre-test which will by given before the treatment and the second one will by post-test which will by given after the treatment. The test both pre-test and post-test for the experimental group has the same procedure. The writer will be ask the student 20 item in the multiple choices. The student to till to blanks the boxes in the puzzle from left to right or from top to down using key words provide in the theme fruits.
8.5.1        Validity of the Test
            Validity (in testing) is the degree to which a test measures what it supposed to measure, or can be used successfully for the purposes for which it is intended. A number of different statistical procedures generally seek to determine what the test measure, and how well it does so. (Richard, Jack: John Platt and Heidi Weber, 1985:304)
            The validity of a test is the degree to which it measure what it claims to measure. A test is valid to the extent that inferences made from it are appropriate, meaningful, and useful. (Robert J. Gregory, 2004:116)





TABLE 2
TEST OF SPECIFICATION
Objectives
Indicator
No of Items
Type of the Test
The student comprehend the words related fruits
The students are able to fill the blanks boxes with the words related to the fruits
1- 20
Fill the blanks with the choose a, b, c, and d (multiple choices) to complete the sentences

8.5.2        Reliability of the Test
            According to Fraenkel and Wallen (1990), reliability refers to the consistency of the scores obtained show consistent they are for each individual from one administration of an instrument to another and from one set of items to another.
             Realibility (in testing) is measure of the degree to which a test gives consistent results. A test is said to be reliable if it gives the same results when it is given on different occasions or when it is used by different people. (Richard, et, al. 1985:243). In this study, the internal consistency of reliability of estimated through Kuder-Richardson Reliability Coefficient. Dealing with it, Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:149) write that, for research purpose, a useful rule is that reliability should be at lest 0,70an preferably higher. A reliability of 0.70 indicates 70% consistency in the scores and are produced by the instrument. In other words, a minimum a reliability of required of should be higher. The following the Kuder-Richardson formula: 21 (KR 21) formulas. (Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:149)
                     KR 21 =
Where
KR 21   =    Kuder-Richardson Reliability Coefficient
K           =    Number of items in the test
M           =    Mean of the set of test scores
SD         =    Standard Deviation of the set of test scores.

To find the SD the following the formula is used:
                
              =

Where
X           = Number of Correct Answer
X           = Student’s Mean Score
n            = Number of Students
8.6  Technique for Analyzing the Data
            In analysing the data collected from the test, the writer will analyze them by using matched t-test. It will be used to know significance difference between the student’s achievement in the pre-test and that in the post-test. The formula in the matched t-test will be as follow:
                  t = 
where:
t           : The value by which statistical significance of the mean difference are judged
X1        : Means of the students’ scores in the post-test
X2        : Means of the students’ scores in the pre-test
SD       : The Standard Errors of Differences between Two Means                          
(Source: Hatch and Farhady; 1982:116)

The formula of SD is:
                        =
Where:
SD       : Standard Deviation of the differences
n          : Number of Pairs

Where the formula of SD is:
            =
Where:
SD       : Standard Deviation of the differences
n          : Number of pairs








REFERENCES
Brown, H. Douglas.2007. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching. New York:
            Pearson Education, Inc.

Richard, Jack, John Platt and Heidi Weber.1985. Longman Dictionary of Applied
            Linguistics. Harlow England: Longman Group Limited.

Fraenkel, Jack. R and Norman.E. Wallen. 1990. How to Design and Evaluate
            Research. New York: Mc.Graw Hill.Inc.

Saleh, Yuslizal.1997. Methodology of TEFL in the Indonesian Context Book
            I. Palembang: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of
            Sriwijaya Palembang.

Healey, Joseph F.1999. Statistics: a Tool for Social Research. New York: Wadsworth
            Publishing Company.

Hornby, A.S.1995. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford
            University Prees.

Jackson, Howard. 2000. Words, Meaning, and Vocabulary. Newyork: The Gromwell
            Press. Trowbridge.

Margono, S. 2009. Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan. Jakarta: PT. RINEKA CIPTA

Rositasari, Tri. 1997. Increasing Students’ Vocabulary Through Quartet Game in the
Fifth Year at SD Methodist 1 Palembang. Unpublished: Faculty of Teacher
Training and Education Sriwijaya University Indralaya.

Goodman, Lori. 2003. Wordplay. USA: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2006. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: PT. RINEKA CIPTA.


 
 THE FACTORS THAT CAUSE STUDENT’S DFFICULTIES IN COMPREHENDING THE ENGLISH READING TEXT OF THE EIGHT YEAR STUDENTS OF THE STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL  1 OF PAGARALAM


Compiled by :


ADE IRAWAN
Student Registration Number 2010.111.286
Class 5A
Language And Arts Education Department




UNVPGRI WARNA 








THE FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
THE UNIVERSITY OF PGRI PALEMBANG
2010
THE FACTORS THAT CAUSE STUDENT’S DFFICULTIES IN COMPREHENDING THE ENGLISH READING TEXT OF THE EIGHT YEAR STUDENTS OF THE STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL  1 OF PAGARALAM
  1. Background
          English is an international language; beside that English means of communication. English has important position in every aspect of the life, it is not only in education but also in business, social, tourism, etc. the importance of English can be seen form other side. Nowadays many things have been written printed in English i.e.; magazine, newspaper, and scientific book.
          In education English has been chosen as one of the subject that should be mastered by the student; in junior high school, senior high school, and university level. In Indonesia teaching English focus on four basic skills, namely; listening, reading, speaking and writing.
          Reading is first of all, and essentially, the mechanical skill of decoding, of turning the printed symbols into the sounds which are language (McCracken and Walcutt, 1969: 6). Of course the reason we turn the print into sound is to get at the meaning.
          According Clark and Starr (1986: 270-271) Reading is a difficult skill that takes your to master. For most of us it is skill we must continue to learn well into our adult lives. Undoubtedly most of your best student will not have mastered all the skill they need to because efficient, effective readers and some of your students will be truly disabled readers.
      According to Harmer (1995: 6) Reading for detailed comprehension, whether. Looking for detailed information or language, must be seen by students as something very different from the reading skill mentioned above. When looking for details, we expect students to concentrate on the minutiae of what they are reading.                                         
According to Bartlet in Nunan (1995: 68) Discourse comprehension is process of utilizing linguistics cues background knowledge to reconstruct meaning, these schemata important, particularly to second and foreign language learners.
In fact, many students get difficulties in comprehending the English reading text; getting the general information, specific information, vocabulary, grammatical, and main idea of paragraph of a text (Lusiana, 2007:2). Block in Putri(2003:11) states that there are number of causes of poor comprehension, such as; lack of vocabulary knowledge, inappropriate reading strategies and reading speeds, some factors associated with students (boring activities in reading), text ( of low interest materials), situation (uncomfortable situation towards learning), and Insufficient time spent in reading. It means that the factors that cause students difficulties in comprehending the reading text, not only from the teacher strategies, text and also the students self. The interaction between the teacher and also the students has influence to the students in comprehending the text, some of the reason; it may methodology that the teacher uses in teaching.
          The lack of ability in comprehend the reading text, because  the students don’t know to apply some of reading skill and they have no ability in comprehend it, such as; inability in scanning, skimming, guessing meaning from the context, etc. the students unable in getting the message from the text and they will be failure in answering the question related to the text.
         Based on fact above, the writer interest to do this research entitle “The Factors That Cause Students’ Difficulties in Comprehending the English Reading Text of the Eight Year Students of the State Junior High School  1 of Pagaralam.”  

            1.2. Problems
            1.2.1. Limitation of Problem
The limitation in this research is limited toward the factors that cause students difficulties in comprehending the English reading text of the eight year students of the State Junior High School 1 of Pagaralam.
            1.2.2. Formulation of the problems
The writer formulates the following questions:
1.      What are the students’ difficulties in comprehending the English reading text?
2.      What are the factors that cause students’ difficulties in comprehending the English reading text?
3.       What is dominant factor that faced by students’ in comprehending the English reading text?
            1.3. The objectives of the study
The objectives of this study are:
1.      To find out the students’ difficulties in comprehending the English reading text.
2.      To find out the factors that causes the student’ difficulties in comprehending the English reading text.
3.      To find the dominant factor that causes the students’ difficulties in comprehending the English reading text.
               1.4. The significance of the study
1.      Be useful for the teacher in helping their students in comprehending the English reading text after the teacher find out the factors that cause students difficulties in comprehend the reading text.
2.      Be useful for the students to improve their ability in comprehending the English reading text and to be more active in learning English.
3.      It is hoped that this thesis will be useful for the next researchers.

  1. Literature review
This chapter presents: 1) The concept of reading, 2) Reading skills, 3)  The concept reading comprehension, 4) The difficulties in reading comprehension, 5) The factors that cause students’ difficulties in comprehending the reading text, 6) Previous related study.
       2.1. The concept of Reading
                        According to Elizabeth (2008:1-2) Reading is the process of constructing meaning from print and from other symbol. Reading involves not just the  print and the illustrations, but also readers bringing to the process their knowledge of the world and their past experiences. The reading process does not involve reading every single letter and that is why proofreading is so difficult: when you are very familiar with the ideas you hardly need to read the words at all.
                        Reading is interactive process---as conversation is because is both reader and writer depend on each other. The interaction is complicated by the fact that the writer is absent at the time of reading; so he gets no feedback and cannot know what parts of her text will cause misunderstanding. He has to guess and shape the text accordingly, but as he never knows who the readers will be, he will never completely succeed (Nuttal, 1996:11).
                        According to Rudd (1989:5) Reading is a highly complicated process which relies on great variety of skill, and skills is the operative word here. Reading is vital to daily life. Not,  a day goes past without reading, even if it’s only selecting the correct packet from the kitchen shelf or reading street sign.
                        According to McCracken and Walcutt (1969:4) Reading is to get information of some sort from the printed page. But since we get information in the same way from spoken language, this purposes does not define reading in a way that distinguishes it from talking.
                        Reading is seen as selective process taking place between the reader and the text, in which background knowledge and various of language interact with information in the text to contribute to text comprehension.
            Based on explanation above, its can be concluded that reading means a process between the readers to understanding the messaging that is written from the text.
            2.2. Reading skills
                        Reading skills should be taught functionally. Therefore, as you as a middle or secondary school teacher must teach reading skill in your regular contents courses. Besides, learning to use these skills while reading material they must study anyway gives students a reason for trying them. (Clark and Starr, 1981:271)
                        According to Cochran (1993: 12) Reading skills contents of :
1.      Vocabulary
a.       Learning  terms to English (e.g., apostrophe, adjective)
b.      Learning English (literary or grammatical) meaning for common words (e.g., romantic, subject, act).
c.       Understanding words change in meaning and pronunciation (e.g., edelweiss, croissant).
d.      Understanding how new words are coined or how they enter our language (e.g., snafu, morpheme).
2.      Comprehension
a.       Selecting significance details, classifying convergently, formulating main ideas.
b.      Following directions.
c.       Recognizing sequence
d.      Inferring time, place, mood, motive of characters
e.       Making comparisons
f.       Responding to imagery
g.      Recognizing semantic and literary devices
h.      Distinguishing between fact and literary devices
i.        Detecting fallacies of reasoning.
According to Inmon and Lenier(1992:156-157) There are four basic types of reading: study reading, rapid reading, skimming, and scanning. Each type suited to a particular type of reading material and reading purpose, and each should be practiced at different speeds.
1.      Study reading on difficult textbook or technical material when your purpose is thorough understanding and/or memorization. study reading rates usually do not exceed 250 words per minute.
2.       Rapid reading should be used when your purpose is to get a general idea of what you read and when the material is not extremely complicated. types. types of material suitable for rapid reading include newspapers, magazines, novels, and light nonfiction.
3.      Skimming is quickly looking over a selection to get the general idea rather than reading every word. it is used (1) when surveying a chapter or article, (2) when all you need is a general overview, and (3) when reviewing something you once read to refresh your memory. to give you an example of skimming, we have emphasized some words, in the following article.
4.      Scanning is locating specific information, such as a name, a place, or a date. For example, when you look up something in the dictionary or in the telephone book, you are scanning. you run your eyes over the page and read only the information surrounding what you are looking for. You may also use scanning in textbooks-for example, when you particular name or date in a chapter.
  
2.3. The Concept of Comprehension
2.3.1. Definition of Reading Comprehension
Comprehension is understanding the meaning of what is the read from the print, illustrations, layout and design (Elizabeth, 2008:190). Stop think for a moment. You are probably a very proficient reader, and proficient readers take comprehension for granted. As you read this book the written symbols create meaning. When you comprehend the words, does this mean that you are making  that you are making a mental image of the information in the words? Does comprehension depend on decoding and pronouncing the words on the pages? Comprehension is both of these things.
According to Elizabeth (2008:190) is the act simultaneously and constructing meaning from the text. Students have to extract meaning from the printed words on the page by working out how print  operates to represent words. They also need to build new meanings by integrating new ideas with old information. In doing this , they are constructing meanings.
According to Hornby in Lusiana (2007:10) reading comprehension means reading with the power of understanding of the printed symbols.
Reading comprehension is the goal instruction in reading and recognition is a means to help achieve that goal( Choate, 1995:153).
According to Bartlet in Nunan (1995:68), discourse comprehension involves a transaction of utilizing linguistic cues and background knowledge to reconstruct meaning, these schemata are extremely important, particularly to second  to second and foreign language.
According to Abdulaziz and  Stover (1989:11-12) students can perform their own calculations and keep their own chart in reading comprehension skill.
1.      Main idea A multiple-choice main idea exercise follows each reading. Stunts are required to distinguish a statement of the main idea from other statement of the main idea from other statement that are true about the reading.
2.      Comprehension questions The comprehension questions are means to test student’s understanding.
3.      Using new vocabulary Questions on new vocabulary words are intended to lead the student through the reading idea by idea and new word by new word.
4.      Additional reading This reading usually includes only one quick exercise to test comprehension. I is not a timed reading and is not reading and is not meant for extensive analysis.
According to Richards ,et al in Jaya(2005:9) states that reader’s purposes in reading and the types of reading used referred to:
1.      Literal comprehension, where reading in order to understand, remembers, or recall the information explicitly contained contained in a passage.
2.      Inferential comprehension, where reading in order to find information, which is not explicitly stated in a passage, using the readers’ experience and institution, and by inferring.
3.      Critical or evaluation comprehension, where in order to compare information in a passage with the readers’ own knowledge and values.
4.      Appreciative comprehension, where reading in order to gain an emotional or other kind of valued response from a passage.
            According to Wagman (1984:95) Comprehension, or understanding what has been decoded, in the essence of reading. A reader’s ability to comprehend is built on aptitude in associating meaning with printed symbols and relating these meanings to personal language patterns and personal experience. When decoded symbols produce familiar concepts, the reader’s ability to understand the author’s message is greatly enhanced.
             2.4. The Difficulties in Comprehending Skill
           According to Edna Wagman (1984:95) Much greater difficulty in measuring comprehension is apparent when one tries to evaluate the reader’s understanding in the more intangible areas of critical reading and thinking, judging, evaluating, or applying understanding gained from the printed page.
According to Perera (1894:274 ), there are types of difficulty in reading comprehension, they are:
1.      illegible handwriting, print that is blurred or uncomfortably small, or lack of contrast between the words and the background.
2.      when the subject matter is outside the reader’s knowledge and experience. In this case, it is possible for all the words of the text to be understood but for the whole not to make sense.
3.      presented by unfamiliar vocabulary. Some of the book written for junior school pupils, contains several words which are unlikely to be known by young children.
4.      there may be grammatical difficulties in the text.
5.      they overall of discourse organization may be unclear or unfamiliar.
According to Burgmeier, Eldred, and Zimmerman (1991)  the difficulty of reading comprehension can divide; establishing a context, understanding words, putting words into sentence, and the last using word in context.
According to Cutler (1993:2) for faster reading with comprehension, you certainly should be able to make reading and study time a more meaningful valuable, productive, and enjoyable experience.
           In Jaya (2005:25) found that the students’ difficulties in comprehending the reading text, they are; Vocabulary, Grammatical structure, Literal comprehension, Inferential comprehension, applied comprehension, Critical reading, and Format of reading text.
           According to Markstein (1981: 6) Comprehensive word or phrase related to the reading write it on the chalkboard, and then ask the students to freely associate any words that come to mind until there are perhaps 30 to 40 words phrases on the board.  
2.5 The Factors that causes Students’ Difficulties in Comprehend the Reading Text.
According to Block in Putri (2003:11) states that there are number of causes poor comprehension such as; lack of vocabulary knowledge, inappropriate reading strategies and reading speeds, some factor associated with students boring activities in reading), text(of low interest materials), situation(uncomfortable situation towards learning), and insufficient time spent in reading.
According to Latulippe (20-21) there are two groups of words that give problems to students of a second language: references and connectives.
1.      References. References are words or phrases that are used as substitutes for words or phrases used either before or (less often) after the reference in the reading material. They are used to avoid unnecessary repetition of words or phrases.
2.      Connectives. Connectives are words that are used to link (connect) ideas together in some kind of relationship. Connectives can be used to signal a cause-expected result relationship in which the result follows logically from the cause.
Puspita in Jaya (2005:18 fount that many difficulties in comprehending reading text:
1.      The lack of competence to find out the main idea and specific idea in the reading text.
2.      The lack of ability to predict the meaning of words in the reading texts and students has limited vocabulary.
3.      The lack of students abilities to discriminate or different between noun and adjective. The students less comprehends in grammar of reading text.
4.      The lack of background knowledge about the reading text.
5.      The lack of comprehending about reading text.
There are five reasons that causes the students fault in reading (Nuttal, 1996:35), they are:
1.      Negative expectations
Perhaps you expected them not to succeed; negative expectations are easily detected and are known to influence student performance adversely.
2. Unsuitable tasks
Perhaps the task were at fault: too difficult, of the point or boring.
3.      The wrong procedures
Did you use the task to promote learning (not just to test), by providing ‘Scaffolding’, to help students to develop their capacity to interpret. Some of the steps you can take in roughly the sequence in which you would use them in class are the following:
Ø  Encouraging: urging students to have try, praising them for what they get right, not blaming them for what they get wrong but using it to help them improve
Ø  Prompting: Helping students complete the original task by giving cues, asking easier questions, setting supplementary tasks.
Ø  Probing: finding out way a students has given a particular answer, so that if need be you can help him to see where he went wrong.
Ø  Modeling: demonstrating appropriate ways of doing thing so that the students will understand what is wanted.
4.      Expecting them to run before they can walk
Expecting too much too soon, students accustomed to a passive role must be gently eased into active participation, and required only gradually to take responsibility for their reading.
5.      The wrong texts
In this research the writer will be investigated the factors that6 cause the students’ difficulties in comprehending the English reading text, such as: (1) Factor from the teacher; inappropriate reading strategies, the method in explaining the reading skills towards to students, and time . (2) Factor from the students; lack of vocabulary knowledge, situation, students’ attitude. (3) Factor from the text; unsuitable reading text, unfamiliar vocabulary, grammatical in text.

             2.6. Previous Related Study
In this research the writer also describes the previous studies. The previous studies here are by Putra Jaya and Septi U Putri. Jaya’s title is difficulties comprehending reading text faced by third year of  the State Senior High School 6 of Bengkulu. And Putri’s title is the factors that cause students’ difficulties in reading text in the second year at the Vocational State Senior High school of 1 Bengkulu.
Both of these have similarity and differences toward this research that will be done by the writer. The similarity is both studies talking about the students problem in reading subject.
The differences is that the writer try to find out the factors that cause students’ difficulties in comprehending the English reading text, meanwhile Jaya’s thesis try to find out the difficulties comprehending reading text faced by third year of the State Senior High School 6 of students Bengkulu. The results of Jaya’s thesis are the students got difficulties in comprehending the reading material because of lack of vocabulary. Based on his investigation, he found that students got difficulties in critical reading, applied comprehension , inferential comprehension, literal comprehension, grammatical structure, and efficient reading.
The second thesis by Putri, she found that the factors in reading text are vocabulary factors, grammar factors, and the whole a text factors.
3. Research Procedures
This chapter presents:  The method of research, 2) Operational definition, 3) The population amid sample, 4) The technique for collecting the data, 5) Validity and Reliability, and 6) The technique for analyzing the data.
                  3.1. Method of Research
The method that will be used in this research is descriptive method. Where the date describe  objectively or based on the fact. This method will be used because the writer wants to describe the factors that cause students’ difficulties in comprehending the English reading text of the eight year students of the State Junior High School 1 of Pagaralam. Gay (1976:189) states that descriptive involves collecting date in order to test hypothesis or answer concerning the current status of the subject of the study.
3.2 Operational Definitions
The title of this research is “ The Factors That Causes Students difficulties in Comprehending the English Reading Text of the State Junior High School 1 of Pagaralam.” To avoid misunderstanding about terms, the writer defines them, they are: factors, cause, difficulty, comprehend, and English reading text.
1.      Factors are causes that influences somebody or something that include in      learning process, such as vocabulary, grammar, and text.
2.      Cause in person or thing that makes something happen.
3.       Difficulty is something difficult, hard to do or understand.
4.      Comprehend refers to understand fully; the mind’s act or power of    understanding.
5.      English reading text refer to all kinds of reading material that used by the students in learning process; e.g., text book passage, worksheet questions, short stories, interest artifices, etc.

3.3. The Population and Sample
3.3.1. The Population
      According to Fraenkel and Wallen(1990:84) states that the population refers to all the members of particular group. It is the group. It is group of interest to the researcher, the group of whom the researcher would like to generalize the result of a study. The population of the research is the eight year students of the State Junior High School 1 of Pagaralam in academic year 2010/2011. the total number of students is 152 students and from 4 classes.






TABLE 1
THE POPULATION OF RESEARCH

No
Classes
Total
1
       8.A
        38
2
       8. B
        38
3
       8.C
        38
4
       8.D
        152
Total








(Source: State Junior High School 1 of Pagaralam in academic year 2010-2011)

3.3.2. The Sample
Sample is any group of individuals on when information is obtained (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990). Arikunto (2006:134) says that if the samples are less than 100, take all the sample. And if the sample more than 100, take 10-15% or 20-25% or more. Depend on the researcher ability in time, energy and find.
In this research, the writer will use cluster random sampling, where the sample will be chosen as group rather than individuals. In determine the sample; the writer will do the following steps:
a.       Writer the name of the four classes in piece of paper.
b.      The writer will roll the paper.
c.       Put the four papers in the glass.
d.      Shake the paper and take of them.






TABLE 2
SAMPLE OF THE RESEARCH

No
Classes
Total
1
8. B
38

3.4. The Technique for Collecting the Data
In collecting the data, writer will use test, and questionnaire.
3.4.1. Test
Test is examination or find the it quality, value, composition, etc; trial or examination of something, his powers, knowledge, skills, etc (Hornby, 1955:1233). The writer will give written test about reading comprehension to the students, and it will be used to measure the students’ difficulties in comprehending the English reading txt. The test consist of 20 multiple choice questions and it consist of six reading skills, they are:
1.      Specific information
2.      Detailed information
3.      Gist idea
4.      Specific main idea
5.      Detailed main idea
6.      Guessing the meaning of words based on the context.
3.4.2. Questionnaire
Questiannaire is written or printed list of questions to be answered by a group of people, especially to get facts or information, or for a survey (Hornby, 1955:1952).
Questionnaire will be used to know the factors that students difficulties in comprehending the English reading text. The students’ questionnaire consist of 20 questions, and the questionnaire write in Indonesia.
             3.5. Validity and Reliability
3.5.1. Validity
Validity is the most important idea to consider when preparing or selecting an instrument for use ( Fraenkel and Wallen:127). It will be used to the check the validity of test materials.
In this research the writer will ask to the teacher and consult to the advisor to get suggestion, advice, and correction in giving the test and questionnaire to the students.
                                          
                                             TABLE 3
Specification of the test items
No
Reading to measure
Number of test items
1
Specific information
5, 10, 11, 13, 18
2
Detailed information
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 14
3
Gist idea
19
4
Specific main idea
20
5
Detailed main idea
12, 16
6
Guessing meaning of the word based on the context
7, 8, 15, 17

3.5.2. Reliability
Reliability refers to the consistency of the scores obtained—how consistent they are for each individual from one administration of an instrument to another and from one set of items to another (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990:133).
In this research the writer will be used KR21(Kurder-Richardson 21) formula to measure reliability of the test items. The following is the Kurder –Richardson 21(KR21) formula.

      KR 21 =
                                                               {Fraenkel and Wallen(1990:135)}

Where:
KR21 =  Kurder Richardson reliability coefficient
K        =  Number of items in the test
M        =  Mean of the set of the score
SD      =  Standard deviations of the set of the scores

              
             And

SD      = 
Where:
SD      = Standard deviations of the set of the scores
X        = Students individual scores
      = Mean of the scores  
n         = Total number of data
3.6. The Technique for Analyzing the data
3.6.1. Test     
In analyzing the data, the writers will do the following step:
1.      The writer collect the student’s paper after the students have answered the questions.
2.      2. grouping the right answer of the students.
3.      Grouping the wrong answer of the students.
4.      Compute the average percent of the students’ score in comprehending the reading text. In this research the writer will use the following formula:

P    = 
Where:
P    = Percentage
F    = Frequency
N   = Total number of item

             3.6.2. Questionnaire
The data from the student response to the questionnaire will be analyzed by using percentage. In order to get percentage scores, the total of the students’ choices is divided by the total number of sample students and multiplied by 100%(Lusiana, 2007:24).
P  = 
Where:
P         =  Percentage
F         =  Frequency
N        =  Total number of samples
If the students’ response give “yes” answer is equal or more than 50%, it means the items might causes the difficulties.















REFERENCES

Fraenkel, and Wallen. 1990. How to Design and Evaluate Research in    Education.  America: Mc Graw-Hill, Inc.
Arikunto, Suharsimi 2006. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Elizabeth, Susan. 2008. Developing Literacy: Assessment and Teaching. China: Sue Hill.
Abudulaziz, and Stover. 1989. Academic Challenges In Reading. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
McCracken, and Walcutt. 1969. Basic Reading. Sacramento: California State Department of Education.
Cochran. 1993. Reading In the Content Areas for Junior High School and High School. America: Allyn and Bacon.
Latulippe. 1987. Developing Academic Reading Skill. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Clark, and Starr. 1986. Secondary and Middle School Teaching Methods. America: Macmillan, Inc.
Burgmeir, Arline. 1991. Academic Vocabulary Study. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Wagman, Edna. 1984. The Assessment In Reading. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Cutler, Wade E. 1993. Triple Your Reading Speed. New York: Prentice Hall.
Linda Markstein. 1981. Developing Reading Skill. America: New Bury House Publisher.
Rudd, Shirley. 1984. Time Manage Your Reading. England: Gower Publishing Company Limited.
Inmon, and Lenier. 1992. College Reading Book 2. New York: Prentice Hall.
                        Jeremy, Harmer. 1998. How to Teach English. Longman: Cambridge University Press
Gay, L.R. 1976. Educational Research Competencies for Analysis and  Application. Singapore: Merril.
Hornby. 1955. Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary of Current English. Great Britain: Oxford University Press.
Husnaini, R. 2003. “The First Year Students’ Difficulties in Answering Reading Comprehension Question in Accordance with Reading Skill at SMU negeri 3 Palembang”. Thesis. Palembang: University of PGRI Palembang.
Jaya, P. 2005. The Difficulties in Comprehending Reading Text Faced by Third Year of  SMU Negeri 6 Students Bengkulu. Unpublished Thesis. Bengkulu: Universitas Bengkulu.
Lusiana, M. 2007. “Some Problems in Teaching Reading Comprehension entitled”Helicopter” to the Eight Year Students of SMP Negeri 35 Palembang”. Thesis. Palembang: Universitas of PGRI Palembang.
Nunan, D. 1996. Language Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for Teachers. Great Britain: Redwood Books.
Nuttal, C. 1996. Teaching Reading Skill in a Foreign Language. Great Britain: Heineman.
Putri, S, U. 2003. “The Factors that Cause Students’ Difficulties in Reading Text in The Second Year Students at SMKN 1 Bengkulu”. Thesis. Bengkulu: University of Bengkulu.
Subana, Rahadi, Sudrajat. 2010. Statistik Pendidikan. Bandung: Pustaka Setia..     


           

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2 komentar:

  1. bagus sekali... terimakasih pak.

    BalasHapus
  2. kok formula KR21 nya ga bs dilihat ya???

    BalasHapus