Senin, 04 Februari 2013

contoh proposal lengkap


TEACHING VOCABULARY WITH THE THEME ”FRUITS” TROUGH WORD SEARCH PUZZLE TO THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF THE STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 16 OF PALEMBANG

A Research Proposal Design by:

Name              : ADE IRAWAN
SRN                : 2010.111.286
Class               : 5.G
Subject           : Research On Language Teaching
Lecturer         : Dr. Suhuri, M.Pd

Student Registration Number 2010 111 299
English Education Study Program
Language and Arts Education Department







FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF PGRI PALEMBANG
2012/2013

TEACHING VOCABULARY WITH THE THEME ”FRUITS” TROUGH WORD SEARCH PUZZLE TO THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF THE STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 16 OF PALEMBANG


1.     Background
            A language is considered to be a system of communicating with other people using sounds, symbols and words in expressing a meaning, idea or thought. This language can be used in many forms, primarily through oral and written communications as well as using expressions through body language.
            Language may refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, or to a specific instance of such a system of complex communication.
            According to Brown, H. Douglas (2007:384), language is a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meanings.
            Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently. (The language Instinct, 1994:6)
            On the other hand, according to Ron Scollon (2004, p.272), wish to emphasize that, first of all, language is not something that comes in “nicely packaged units” and that it certainly is “a multiple, complex, and kaleidoscopic phenomenon.”
            Teaching English to the students can said tricky. Many people argue that describe the subject matter is very difficult because English is a foreign language inevitably be carried out under the demands of the curriculum in force in our country.
            Many students feel confused when they want to speak English with smart fast way. But they were confused where to start. Does first have to master grammar, conversation, vocabulary, reading or writing?
            Vocabulary is one of the language aspects. The students cannot read, speak, listen, and write without understanding the meaning of words. But, by teaching vocabulary first, the students easily able to read, understand and memorize vocabulary more quickly because this is a very effective way.
            In addition, a better way and easier to teach English, especially vocabulary to students is by using games, such as word search puzzle game. Because this game could be an alternative or variation in the methods of English teaching for teachers. With this method, students will not feel bored in learning English. But they will become critical and active children in learning English.
            Word search puzzle can be designed for any educational levels, which make them an ideal learning activity for the students.
            Teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle is not only in written activities and fun so that it would make the students passive learners but also process of the teaching these vocabulary at to be applied in active activities in a for of communication the students will be taught how memorize for a spelling test to do a word search.
            Based on the above statements, the writer takes the title of this study as follow teaching vocabulary with the theme “fruits” through word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 16 of Palembang.

2.     Problem
            The problem of this study is to find out whether the word search puzzle is affective or not for teaching vocabulary to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 16 of Palembang.

2.1        Limitation of the Problem
            This study is limited towards teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 16 of Palembang. The vocabulary tough in the theme fruits is listed below:
  1. Banana                                    6. Guava                                  11. Pineapple
  2. Apple                          7. Kiwi                                    12. Jackfruit
  3. Orange                                    8. Melon                                  13. Mango
  4. Peach                           9. Date                                                14. Grape
  5. Cherry                         10. Olive                                 15. Pear

2.2        Formulation of the Problem
            The formulation of the problem in this study is started in the following question, “Is it effective teaching vocabulary with the theme “fruits” through word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 16 of Palembang?”

3.     Objective of the Research
            The objective of this study is to find out whether it is significantly effective teaching vocabulary with the theme “fruits” through word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 16 of Palembang.

4.     Significances of the Research
            By using this study, there are some significance to the students, teachers, other researchers, and writer herself.
- For students
            This study will be helpful for students in vocabulary and the students apply word search puzzle to increase their vocabulary skills.
- For teachers of English
            After knowing effectiveness in teaching vocabulary of the word search, the teacher can implement this method when they teaching vocabulary.
- For other researchers
            To be the source of information for other researchers who are also investigating word search puzzle.
- For the writer herself
            The result of this study can be useful to enlarge her knowledge about teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle.

5.     Hypotheses
            The hypothesis is a tentative answer to the problem of research, until proven by the data collected. (Arikunto, 2006:71)
            The hypothesis is a temporary answer to the problem of theoretical research that is considered most likely or highest level of truth. Technically, the hypothesis is a statement about the state of the population to be tested for truth through data obtained from the research sample. Statistically, the hypothesis is a declaration of state of the parameters that will be tested through a statistical sample. (Margono, S, 2009:67).
            The hypotheses of the study are proposed in terms of null hypotheses (Ho) and alternative hypotheses (Ha). They are follows:
1. (Ho)             : It is not effective in teaching vocabulary with the theme “fruits”
                          through word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of the State
                          Junior High School 16 of Palembang.
2. (Ha)             : It is effective in teaching vocabulary with the theme “fruits” through
                          word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of the State Junior
                          High School 16 of Palembang.

6.     The Criteria for Testing the Hypotheses
            In this research, the hypotheses will be tested by the critical value of t- distribution table for one tailed test. Since the degree of freedom (df) is 39 (40-1=39) with 95% or 0, 05 significance level for one-tailed test, the criteria value in the t-table is 1.684. If the result of the matched t-test is the same or less than 1.684, the null hypotheses (Ho) will be accepted. On the other hand, if the result of matched t-test is equal to or exceeds 1.684, the alternative hypotheses (Ha) will be accepted and consequently the null hypotheses (Ho) will be rejected (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:272).

7.     Literature Review
            In literature review, the writer discusses:
(1) Concept of teaching
(2) Concept of vocabulary
(3) Concept of word search puzzle
(4) Teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle
(5) Related previous study.

7.1        Concept of Teaching
            According to Newton (1992: ii), teaching is a profession conducted by using a combination of art, science, and skill. It is an art because it relies on the “teacher’s creative provision of the best possible learning environment and activities for his/her students. It is a science since it is a system and ordered set ideas and method used by the teacher in doing his/her job. Further more teaching is skill for it demands the ability-attained from relevant theories and that they are able to gain linguistic and communicative competence in the target language”.
According to Finocchiaro, 1982:5), teaching is trying to keep the students motivation high by using a variety of short activities-four to six different activities-within a 45-minute period cantering around the same teaching point, whether a grammatical feature, a notion, or a function of language, through the cognitive-code theory, that is, the inductive presentation of a linguistic item or category, with tasks and activities that will lead to habit formation of features of pronunciation, morphology, and syntax, which will in turn, lead to fluency and accuracy by focusing more specifically on social communication as the major of objective of language teaching.
Teaching is an interactive process between the teacher and students and among students themselves. The students need to comprehend the new language, but can best do this when allowed asking about what it is they do not understand rather than rely on their teacher or textbook to anticipate areas of comprehension difficulty and simplify a priority (Pica, 1992:4)
Teaching is accompanied by evaluation to know the results of teaching-learning activities because evaluation is a necessary component of all activities, especially in TEFL, whose main objective is to monitor, to help, and to grade the student’s use of the language. (Oller, Jr, 1987: 21)
   Teaching is showing or helping someone to learn, giving instructions; guiding; providing with knowledge; causing to know or understand. (Brown, H. Douglas, 2007:391)

7.2        Concept of Vocabulary
            Vocabulary is a set of LEXEMES, including single words, COMPOUND WORDS and IDIOMS (Richard, Jack: John Platt and Heidi Weber, 1985:307).
            According to Hornby (1974:959), vocabulary is a total number of words which (with rules for combining them) make up the language.
            According to lexical field theory, the vocabulary of a language is essentially a dynamic and well-integrated system of lexemes structured by relationships of meaning. (Howard Jackson, 2000: 14)
            Websters (1988:110 p.9) states that vocabulary is a list of words, usually arranges alphabetically and defined, explained, or translated.
            In learning vocabulary, the learners should emphasize on the aspect of words. The success in learning a foreign language is determined by the size of vocabulary one has learned.
           
7.2.1 The Important of Vocabulary
            Vocabulary is very important in language, a large number of vocabularies are so difficult to learn, and because of that, the teacher should use good method in teaching vocabulary. Since the teaching of English in Indonesia is aimed increasing that teaching vocabulary? The English teacher much takes deep concern of vocabulary lesson. However, vocabulary teaching has not always been very responsive to such problems, and the teachers have not fully recognised the tremendous communicative advantage in developing an extensive vocabulary.
            According to Websters (1988:9), in learning language, someone will learn the words of that language since we have learned that it is the essential area of language. From the statements above, we assumed that vocabulary is a very important element of a language.
            Although there are many techniques of teaching vocabulary. Nation (1974: 10, p.9) says, when we teach a word we must teach three things: (1) we must teach the shape or the form of the word, (2) we must teach the meaning of the word, (3) and we must teach that the form and the meaning of the word together.

7.3        Concept of Word Search Puzzle
            According to Hornby (1995: 947), puzzle is a thing that is difficult to understand or answer a mystery or a question or toy that is designed to test a person’s knowledge, skill, intelligence, etc.
            A word search puzzle is a word game that is letters of a word in a grid that usually has a rectangular or square shape. The objective of this puzzle is to find and mark all the words hidden inside the box. The words may be horizontally, vertically or diagonally. Often a list of the hidden words is provided, but more challenging puzzles may let the player figure them out. Many word search games have a theme to which all the hidden words are related. The puzzle it self kind to play that can be used to practice certain language features at certain phases in learning process in order to develop communication skill.
7.4.    Teaching Vocabulary through Word Search Games
            To success in teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle, the teacher should have different technique for different level.
            Teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle enables the students to find out to information or guests the meaning on unfamiliar words. So, the word search puzzle can help the students. The students may be happy and interesting in learning and they always try to know the new words from word search puzzle.
            Relating to the importance of teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle, as far as it is know some students are always confused with the problem of through puzzle. In this case, there are many ways to making the students interested in what they are learning the teacher can create a game, which the student can think about new words that related with the topic of word search puzzle. Teaching vocabulary by using word search puzzle make students more relax, enjoyable, happy and the students understanding the material. And also can improve their achievement.
            Children without an extensive vocabulary have a hard time understanding what they’re reading, especially as they get older and reading material becomes more difficult. To complicate matters, most young readers, including different learners, have a larger spoken vocabulary than a reading vocabulary. (Goodman, Lori. Wordplay, 2003:13)
7.5    Related Previous Study
     In this study there is one related studies, which is similar to this present study, she is written by Supriyani (2001). The title of her thesis is: TEACHING ENGLISH VOCABULARY USING PUZZLE TO THE SEVENTH YEAR STUDENTS’ OF THE STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL YAYASAN PEMBINA PALEMBANG. The purposes of her thesis are:
(1) To find out the whether or not there are differences in vocabulary using puzzle and the students who are not taught without puzzle.
(2) To know how the students’ ability in vocabulary mastery after they are taught using puzzle.
            From the study above, the writer compares her research with those of Supriyani. There are similarities and differences between her and the writer. The similarities between the previous study and this study: (1) the instrument used by the previous study was the puzzles, (2) the puzzle was used by the previous study for teaching vocabulary. This studies the experimental method for teaching vocabulary. And the differences are the location of the research and the samples of the research. The result of Supriyani’s thesis is teaching vocabulary through puzzle was effective to the seventh year students’ of SMP Yayasan Pembina Palembang.

8.    Research Procedure
            In method and procedure focuses on the discussion of (1) Research Variables, (2) Operational Definitions, (3) Method of Research, (4) Population and Sample, (5) Techniques for collecting the Data, (6) Techniques for Analyzing Data.
8.1    Research Variables
            There are two kinds of research variables. They are independent variable and dependent variable. Independent variable is presumed to have an effect on, to influence some how another variable, while dependent variable is a variable that the independent variable is presumed to affect (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990:39)
Variable is any trait that can change values from case to case. Examples of variables would be gender, age, income, or political party affiliation. In any specific theory, some variables will be identified as causes and others will be identified as effects or result. In the language of science, the causes are called independent variables and the “effects” or result variables are called dependent variables. (Healey, Joseph F. 1999:3)
            In my research variable, the independent variable on this investigation is the word search puzzle and dependent variable is teaching vocabulary.


8.2      Operational Definitions
            In this part, some important terms must be operationally defined to avoid misinterpretation and misunderstanding on what this thesis is discussing about. They are: (1) Teaching, (2) Vocabulary, (3) Word Search Puzzle.
(1) Teaching
            Teaching is activities guiding the students learning activities, arranging, and organizing environment around. The students can stimulate and develop the students to learn the turn of the teaching is a prove performed by the teacher to increase students learning activities.
            Teaching is an activity in which teachers convey knowledge and experience to their students. The goal is for the knowledge presented to students that can be understood by learners.
            Teaching is an organized activity or manage the environment as well - good and connects with the kids, and become involved in the learning process.

(2) Vocabulary
            Vocabulary is a total number of words that make up language and a list or collection of words arranged in alphabetical order and explained; a dictionary or lexicon, either of a whole language, a single work or author, a branch of science, or the like; a word-book.
            A vocabulary is defined as all the words known and used by a particular person. However, the words known and used by a particular person do not constitute all the words a person is exposed to.
(3) Word Search Puzzle
            Word search puzzles are a game in the search for the words, either vertically, horizontally, and diagonally. This game can help students increase their vocabulary and make them happy in doing search puzzle game of words.
8.3    Method of Research
   According to Hornby (1995:780), method is the way of doing something. In writing this study, the writer will use the experimental design. Richards, et.al (1985:100) states that an experimental method is an approach to educational research in which the idea of hypothesis is tested or verified by setting up situation in which relationship between different subjects or variables can be determined.
   The method used in conducting this research is experimental method. Dealing the experimental method, Isaac and Michael (1982:54) states that is it use to approximate the conditions of the true experiment in a setting, which does not allow the control and/ or manipulation of all relevant variables. The following are the step taken in doing this research.
1. Surveying the literature relating to problem
2. Determining the type of research to be conducted, and how it will be affect the design of the research investigation.
3. Establishing clearly the goals and objectives of the made, and the how these translate into testable research hypotheses.
4. Identifying the population from which inferences are made, and the limitations of the sample drawn, for purposes of the investigation.
8.4    Population and Sample
8.4.1.   Population
            Population is all data that concerns us in a scope and time that we specify. Thus, population-related data, not human. If every human being to provide a data, the number or size of the population will be equal to the number of humans. (Margono, S. 2009:118).

            Understanding others, mentions that the whole object of the study population was composed of humans, objects, animals, plants, symptoms, test scores, or events as a source of data that have certain characteristics in a study. (Hadari Nawawi, 1983:141)
            The population of this research in the seventh grade student of State Junior High School 16 of Palembang in the academy year at 2009/2010. There were five classes VII A until VII E consisted of 4 students, so the total of than was 200 students.
            Table seventh grade students at State Junior High School 16 of Palembang are 200 students as shown in table 1 below:
                                                            Table 1
The population of the study
No
Class
Students
1
VII A
40
2
VII B
40
3
VII C
40
4
VII D
40
5
VII E
40

Total
200
(Source: State Junior High School 16 of Palembang)
8.4.2.      Sample
            Sample is any group of individual, which selected to present a population. (Richards,et al,1992:321)
            Arikunto (1993:104) states that the sample is any number of things, people or events which are less than the total population. In this research, the sample of the study is dawn from the population by using cluster random and sampling.
            According to Fraenkel and Wallen (1990), sample is a group in a research study on which information is obtained. It is selected in such a way that it represents, the larger group (population) from which it is obtained. In choosing the sample for the study, the writer will use cluster random sampling method. Fraenkel and Wallen state that cluster random sampling is the selection of individuals rather that single individual. All individuals in a cluster are included in the sample.
8.5      Techniques for Collecting the Data
            In collecting the data for this study, the written test will be used. A test is any procedure for measuring ability, knowledge, or performance (Richards, et,al 1985:291). Test is given to help the students assess the effect of experimentation and to know so far the students can understand what they have learned. They will be to kinds of the best that will use by the writer. The first will be pre-test which will by given before the treatment and the second one will by post-test which will by given after the treatment. The test both pre-test and post-test for the experimental group has the same procedure. The writer will be ask the student 20 item in the multiple choices. The student to till to blanks the boxes in the puzzle from left to right or from top to down using key words provide in the theme fruits.
8.5.1        Validity of the Test
            Validity (in testing) is the degree to which a test measures what it supposed to measure, or can be used successfully for the purposes for which it is intended. A number of different statistical procedures generally seek to determine what the test measure, and how well it does so. (Richard, Jack: John Platt and Heidi Weber, 1985:304)
            The validity of a test is the degree to which it measure what it claims to measure. A test is valid to the extent that inferences made from it are appropriate, meaningful, and useful. (Robert J. Gregory, 2004:116)





TABLE 2
TEST OF SPECIFICATION
Objectives
Indicator
No of Items
Type of the Test
The student comprehend the words related fruits
The students are able to fill the blanks boxes with the words related to the fruits
1- 20
Fill the blanks with the choose a, b, c, and d (multiple choices) to complete the sentences

8.5.2        Reliability of the Test
            According to Fraenkel and Wallen (1990), reliability refers to the consistency of the scores obtained show consistent they are for each individual from one administration of an instrument to another and from one set of items to another.
             Realibility (in testing) is measure of the degree to which a test gives consistent results. A test is said to be reliable if it gives the same results when it is given on different occasions or when it is used by different people. (Richard, et, al. 1985:243). In this study, the internal consistency of reliability of estimated through Kuder-Richardson Reliability Coefficient. Dealing with it, Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:149) write that, for research purpose, a useful rule is that reliability should be at lest 0,70an preferably higher. A reliability of 0.70 indicates 70% consistency in the scores and are produced by the instrument. In other words, a minimum a reliability of required of should be higher. The following the Kuder-Richardson formula: 21 (KR 21) formulas. (Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:149)
                     KR 21 =
Where
KR 21   =    Kuder-Richardson Reliability Coefficient
K           =    Number of items in the test
M           =    Mean of the set of test scores
SD         =    Standard Deviation of the set of test scores.

To find the SD the following the formula is used:
                
              =

Where
X           = Number of Correct Answer
X           = Student’s Mean Score
n            = Number of Students
8.6  Technique for Analyzing the Data
            In analysing the data collected from the test, the writer will analyze them by using matched t-test. It will be used to know significance difference between the student’s achievement in the pre-test and that in the post-test. The formula in the matched t-test will be as follow:
                  t = 
where:
t           : The value by which statistical significance of the mean difference are judged
X1        : Means of the students’ scores in the post-test
X2        : Means of the students’ scores in the pre-test
SD       : The Standard Errors of Differences between Two Means                          
(Source: Hatch and Farhady; 1982:116)

The formula of SD is:
                        =
Where:
SD       : Standard Deviation of the differences
n          : Number of Pairs

Where the formula of SD is:
            =
Where:
SD       : Standard Deviation of the differences
n          : Number of pairs








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Healey, Joseph F.1999. Statistics: a Tool for Social Research. New York: Wadsworth
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